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Leong Frederick Leong
Director, Consortium for Multicultural Psychology Research
Adjunct Professor, Department of Psychiatry
Ph.D. Psychology, University of Maryland 1988
Masters Psychology, University of Maryland 1982
Bachelors Psychology, Bates College, Maine 1979
Primary Program: Organizational
136A Psychology
(517) 353-9925

Related Research Websites
Consortium for Multicultural Psychology Research PI: Dr. Frederick Leong
Our primary mission is to generate and apply psychological science to increase our understanding of multicultural issues in both domestic and international contexts.
Cross-culture Family and Work Behavior Study Dr. Frederick Leong, Dr. Ann Marie Ryan, JoAnn Lin, Dr. Hannah Nguyen, and Saba Butt
Scholars have long studied cultural differences on traits such as familism, collectivism-individualism, traditionality, and interpersonal relatedness. However, very few studies have linked these cultural differences in traits to other outcomes. This study develops a comprehensive model to examine how these traits might predict several individual and interpersonal outcomes such as self construal, interdependence with family, family conflict, perceptions on leadership, etc, and how these links vary across cultures. Currently, data have been or will be collected via questionnaires from several locations in US and Asia. Findings from this study would enhance theoretical understanding on cultural differences in the relationships between individual traits, and family and work behavior. They could also provide practical insights into how to better manage employees from different cultures
Diversified Portfolio Model of Adaptability Dr. Frederick T.L. Leong, Dr. Siddharth Chandra and Ross Walker
We have developed a new theoretical model called the Diversified Portfolio Model (DPM) of Adaptability (American Psychologist, in press). In the 1950s Markowitz had developed the financial portfolio model by demonstrating that investors could optimize the ratio of risk and return on their portfolios through risk diversification. Our DPM integrates attractive features of a variety of models of adaptability, including Linville’’s Self-complexity Model, the Risk and Resilience Model, and Bandura’’s Social Cognitive Theory. The DPM draws on the concept of portfolio diversification, positing that diversified investment in multiple life experiences, life roles, and relationships promotes positive adaptation to life’’s challenges. The DPM provides a new integrative model of adaptability across the biopsychosocial levels of functioning. More importantly, the DPM addresses a gap in the literature by illuminating the antecedents of adaptive processes studied in a broad array of psychological models. We are embarking on a program of research to test the propositions generated by this model by examining its validity and utility in increasing adaptability across multiple domains.
International Career Adaptability Project Dr. Frederick T.L. Leong. Dr. Christopher Nye, Joshua Prasad, and Danielle Gardner
In 2008, psychologists from 15 different countries met in Berlin at the International Congress of Psychology to start work on the International Career Adaptability Project. As an extension of Donald Supera’‘s model, the project’’s aim was to create a model and measure for how individuals approach their careers during adulthood. The model consist of 4 dimensions: (a) becoming concerned about the vocational future, (b) taking control of trying to prepare for one’’s vocational future, (c) displaying curiosity by exploring possible selves and future scenarios, and (d) strengthening the confidence to pursue one’’s aspirations. Career adaptability denotes an individual’’s readiness and resources for handling current and anticipated tasks, transitions, and traumas in their occupational roles that, to some degree large or small, alter their social integration. We are currently working to validate the Career Adapt-abilities Inventory (CAI) as well as examining correlates of career adaptability such as subjective well-being, job satisfaction, work engagement, and other adaptability measures.

Research Publications    
2011Schmitt, N., Golubovich, J. & Leong, F.T.L. (in press). Impact of Measurement Invariance on Construct Correlations, Mean Differences and Relations with External Correlates: An Illustrative Example Using Big Five and RIASEC Measures. Assessment,
2011Cheung, F. M., van de Vijver, F.J. R, & Leong, F.T.L. (in press). Toward a New Approach to the Study of Personality in Culture. American Psychologist,
2010Leong, F.T. L., Hardin, E. E. & Gupta, A. (2010). A Cultural Formulations Approach to Career Assessment and Career Counseling with Asian American Clients. Journal of Career Development, 37, 465-486.
2010González, H.M., Tarraf, W. West, B.T., Chan, D., Miranda, P.Y., & Leong, F.T. L. (2010). Antidepressant Use among Asian Americans in the United States. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 46-55.
2010Leong, F.T. L. & Lyons, B. (2010). Ethical challenges for cross-cultural research conducted by psychologists from the United States. Ethics and Behavior, 20, 250-264.
2010Hartung, P.J., Fouad, N.A., Leong, F.T.L. & Hardin, E. E. (2010). Individualism-Collectivism: Links to occupational plans and work values. Journal of Career Assessment,18, 34-45.
2010Leong, F.T.L., Leung, K., & Cheung, F. M. (2010). Integrating Cross-Cultural Psychology Research Methods into Ethnic Minority Psychology. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16, 590-597.
2009Obasi, E. M., & Leong, F. T. L. (2009). Psychological distress, acculturation, and mental health seeking attitudes with people of African descent in the United States: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56, 227-238.
2009Brown, R. T., Daly, B. P., & Leong, F.T.L. (2009). Mentoring in Research: A Developmental Approach. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40, 306-313. (Special Issue on Mentoring)
2009Byrne, B.M., Oakland, T., Leong, F.T.L., van de Vijver, F.J. R., Hambleton, R. K., Cheung, F.M., & Bartram, D. (2009). A Critical Analysis of Cross-Cultural Research and Testing Practices: Implications for Improved Education and Training in Psychology. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 3, 94-105.