Research Websites

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Adaptation to the transition to leadership roles Dr. John Schaubroeck, Anita Keller and Catherine LeBlanc
Approach and Avoidance in Work Domains Dr. Russell Johnson, Dr. Chu-Hsiang Chang
We extended research on approach and avoidance motivations by investigating (a) motives in work organizations, (b) interactions among approach and avoidance motives, and (c) effects at implicit levels. Results of Studies 1-4 demonstrated that approach and avoidance work motives are markers of more general approach and avoidance temperaments, distinct from other personality traits (e.g., conscientiousness and self-esteem) and cognitive ability, and stable over time. Approach and avoidance motives predicted work-based mastery and performance goals. In Study 5 we found that motives predicted job satisfaction, organizational commitment, perceptions of support, and work-related strain at a later time. In addition, we observed significant approach by avoidance interactions. In Study 6 we found that approach and avoidance motives, and interactions between them, predicted task performance, citizenship and counterproductive behavior, and turnover cognitions at a later time. In the final study, we replicated the main and interactive effects of motives on behavior using an indirect measure that captures motives at implicit levels.
ARI Computational Modeling & Team Simulation Lab Dr. Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Dr. Georgia T. Chao, Dr. Michael Braun, Dr. James Grand, Dr. Goran Kuljanin, & Stanton Mak
This research is building on our prior work that developed a computational model (CM) / agent-based simulation (ABS) coupled with a synthetic team task simulation to examine how collective team-level knowledge emerges from the interaction of individual experts as they each acquire problem-relevant knowledge, share it, and then leverage it to make a series of decisions (funded by ONR). We are now extending our work to develop a much more flexible CM architecture to study team leadership structures, team processes (e.g., cohesion, cognition, performance), and team adaptability to internal and external shocks. The agent teams will allow us to conduct "virtual experiments" to identify promising ways to improve team leadership, processes, and effectiveness.
Authoritarian leadership and perceived insider status Dr. John Schaubroek, Yimo Shen, and Sinhui Chong
Consortium for Multicultural Psychology Research PI: Dr. Frederick Leong
Our primary mission is to generate and apply psychological science to increase our understanding of multicultural issues in both domestic and international contexts.
Cross-culture Family and Work Behavior Study Dr. Frederick Leong, Dr. Ann Marie Ryan, JoAnn Lin, Dr. Hannah Nguyen, and Saba Butt
Scholars have long studied cultural differences on traits such as familism, collectivism-individualism, traditionality, and interpersonal relatedness. However, very few studies have linked these cultural differences in traits to other outcomes. This study develops a comprehensive model to examine how these traits might predict several individual and interpersonal outcomes such as self construal, interdependence with family, family conflict, perceptions on leadership, etc, and how these links vary across cultures. Currently, data have been or will be collected via questionnaires from several locations in US and Asia. Findings from this study would enhance theoretical understanding on cultural differences in the relationships between individual traits, and family and work behavior. They could also provide practical insights into how to better manage employees from different cultures
Diversified Portfolio Model of Adaptability Dr. Frederick T.L. Leong, Dr. Siddharth Chandra and Ross Walker
We have developed a new theoretical model called the Diversified Portfolio Model (DPM) of Adaptability (American Psychologist, in press). In the 1950s Markowitz had developed the financial portfolio model by demonstrating that investors could optimize the ratio of risk and return on their portfolios through risk diversification. Our DPM integrates attractive features of a variety of models of adaptability, including Linville’’s Self-complexity Model, the Risk and Resilience Model, and Bandura’’s Social Cognitive Theory. The DPM draws on the concept of portfolio diversification, positing that diversified investment in multiple life experiences, life roles, and relationships promotes positive adaptation to life’’s challenges. The DPM provides a new integrative model of adaptability across the biopsychosocial levels of functioning. More importantly, the DPM addresses a gap in the literature by illuminating the antecedents of adaptive processes studied in a broad array of psychological models. We are embarking on a program of research to test the propositions generated by this model by examining its validity and utility in increasing adaptability across multiple domains.
Dynamics of Training Transfer and Developing Expertise Dr. J. Kevin Ford and Josh Prasad
Thirty years ago Baldwin and Ford (1988) summarize the existing research on training transfer and provide an agenda for moving forward. The current work integrates research on training transfer since that review and develops a new agenda for future research..
Emergency Medical Teams Research Group Emergency Medical Teams: Dr. Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Dr. Georgia T. Chao & Dr. Rosemarie Fernandez (University of Washington), Dr. James A. Grand (University of Maryland), Simon Golden, Jessica Santoro Webb, & Rory Dixon
The Emergency Medical Teams research group is focused on bringing the science of team effectiveness to emergency medicine. Our team has developed an infrastructure capable of creating, manipulating, and assessing “synthetic” experiences. To this end, we have designed and tested event-based scenarios, behavioral measures, and data capturing techniques to utilize a high-fidelity patient simulator as an experimental research platform to study team processes and effectiveness. Our current research is focused on developing and evaluating team leader training. The research is funded by the Agency for Health Research Quality (AHRQ, $1M; another AHRQ $1M is starting in 2015)
Ethical leadership, peer ethical behavior, and knowledge sharing Dr. John Schaubroeck and Jingjing Ma
Extending I-O to Novel Work Contexts Dr. Alice Brawley
Broadly speaking, projects in this area extend traditional I-O psychology topics to novel or understudied work settings and worker populations. Projects currently in progress include qualitative and quantitative studies of performance management and turnover in very small family businesses, as well as projects examining job analysis and stressor-strain-outcome models as they apply to gig workers. The goal of these projects is to enhance the generalizability of I-O psychology to new and less commonly-studied work domains.
International Career Adaptability Project Dr. Frederick T.L. Leong. Dr. Christopher Nye, Joshua Prasad, and Danielle Gardner
In 2008, psychologists from 15 different countries met in Berlin at the International Congress of Psychology to start work on the International Career Adaptability Project. As an extension of Donald Supera’‘s model, the project’’s aim was to create a model and measure for how individuals approach their careers during adulthood. The model consist of 4 dimensions: (a) becoming concerned about the vocational future, (b) taking control of trying to prepare for one’’s vocational future, (c) displaying curiosity by exploring possible selves and future scenarios, and (d) strengthening the confidence to pursue one’’s aspirations. Career adaptability denotes an individual’’s readiness and resources for handling current and anticipated tasks, transitions, and traumas in their occupational roles that, to some degree large or small, alter their social integration. We are currently working to validate the Career Adapt-abilities Inventory (CAI) as well as examining correlates of career adaptability such as subjective well-being, job satisfaction, work engagement, and other adaptability measures.
Leader role occupancy and well being Dr. John Schaubroeck, Wondon Li, Jialin Xie, and Anita Keller
LMX and counterproductive behavior Dr. John Schaubroeck and Sinhui Chong
Moral Crediting and Workplace Behavior Dr. Chu-Hsiang Chang, Dr. Russell Johnson, Dr. John Schaubroeck, Catherine Ott-Holland
Previous work by Monin and Miller (2001) and others suggests that individuals “credit” themselves for engaging in moral behaviors. Conversely, engaging in selfish or unethical behaviors may cause individuals to notice a deficit in their moral credentials, leading to subsequent behaviors that have positive moral connotations. This “moral crediting” process may explain why altruistic behaviors often immediately follow self-centered behaviors, and vice versa. We are seeking to extend this framework to extra-role behaviors in the workplace. In our initial study, we established that examples of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) have the properties of crediting behaviors (moral, altruistic, etc.) while examples of counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) have the properties of credit spending behaviors (unethical, selfish, etc.) We are currently conducting a lab study that explores whether recalling past OCBs or CWBs affects the likelihood of engaging in a subsequent altruistic behavior.
Moving to a Learning Organization in the Wildlife Division Dr. J. Kevin Ford, Dr. Shawn Riley, Catherine Ott-Holland, and Stanton Mak
The study seeks to develop and implement a process of evaluation of the State of Michigan Wildlife Division strategic plan. The objectives of this study are to: (1) develop an evaluation process the defines metrics of performance relevant to becoming a learning organization; (2) determine factors affecting trust and credibility of the Division among segments of priority stakeholders; and (3) determine limiting factors to achieving increase quality and quantity of collaborative governance regarding wildlife management in Michigan Currently we are conducting a meta-analysis of inter-organizational trust. The project represents as collaborative effort between the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife and the Department of Psychology.
Occupational stigma, leadership, and disengagement Dr. John Schaubroeck, Jennifer Lai, Rico Lam, and Anna Lennard
Organizational Survey Item Project Rick DeShon & Christopher Dishop
Apply text processing and multiple machine learning techniques to identify the concept space present in a given set of survey items.
Personal Agency and Knowledge Integration Networks Dr. John Schaubroeck and Dia Chatterjee
This project aims to develop an annotated bibliography of the literature on personal agency and knowledge sharing, knowledge integration, and innovation.
Skill Retention Dr. Mark Teachout, Dr. J. Kevin Ford, and Robert Gray
This project with the U.S. Army. The objective of the current research is to develop skill retention curves, for collective Army tasks, that represent how proficiency decays on a given task over a period of 180 days following initial training to proficiency, in the absence of refresher training.
Student Behavior and Experience Inventory (SBEI) A large number of today's colleges and universities define their missions much more broadly than before. As a result, their criteria for successful development of their student bodies cannot be adequately captured with traditional measures (e.g., GPA, graduation rate).

Based on information contained in mission statements of higher education institutions, research literature, interviews with college staff, and surveys of college graduate employers, we found support for a 12 dimension taxonomy [A1] of student performance. Included are aspects of educational development reflecting traditional academic notions (e.g., knowledge, continuous learning) as well as broader aspects related to the social and psychological development in college students (e.g., multicultural tolerance, leadership, perseverance, ethics)
The Diversity Research Group Dr. Ann Marie Ryan, Abdifatah A. Ali, Danielle D. King, Dia Chatterjee, Courtney Bryant, Danielle Gardner
On a broad level, we study diversity in the workplace. Specifically, we seek to understand how diversity interacts with other elements of the workplace, how and why members of various social identities manage their identity in a work context, the conditions under which certain identity management strategies are adopted, and the consequences of adopting such strategies. Our studies also focus on how diverse individuals experience discrimination in their attempts to enter and remain within the workforce and how this discrimination can be reduced. Currently, a number of our projects focus on the identity management strategies of job seekers of potentially stigmatized groups to answer questions such as: What strategies do individuals employ when they are concerned about facing discrimination in employment contexts? How do these strategies impact their job seeking behaviors? How do these strategies affect the effectiveness of their job search and employment outcomes? How can organizations design hiring processes to reduce the potential for unconscious bias and discrimination? We have completed or have in progress studies focusing on individuals from a diversity of backgrounds: female job applicants for male-dominated jobs, religious minorities (women who wear the hijab, Atheists) and majorities (Christian employees), individuals with physical and psychological disabilities, younger and older job-seekers, LGB employees, and others.
The Influences of Social Context on Multiple-Goal Regulation Over Time SinHui Chong and Dr. Rick DeShon
Given the prevalence of teams as the organizing unit of work in organizations, employees must balance the simultaneous pursuit of both individual and team goals. Existing research clearly demonstrates that, when given two distinct but equivalent goals, individuals differentially allocate resources toward the task with the highest performance-goal discrepancy (e.g., Schmidt & DeShon, 2007). This finding is consistent with a control theory representation of multiple goal pursuit. However, team goals are somewhat unique in that they involve both task and social components (Marks, Mathieu, & Zaccaro, 2001), yet the role of social context has not received attention in the multiple-goal pursuit paradigm. Our research uses an experimental design to investigate whether the social context presented by a team goal will amplify the salience of the performance—goal discrepancy of the team goal as compared to the individual goal.
The NASA Lab - Studying Processes and Effectiveness in Lab, Field, and Astronaut Analog Teams Dr. Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Dr. Chu-Hsiang (Daisy) Chang, Jessica Santoro Webb, Rory Dixon, Jeff Olenick, Simon Golden, Mike Morrison, Chris Dishop, & Joe Smith
The primary focus of our research is on understanding and assessing the dynamics of team functioning. The research is designed to improve team effectiveness for long duration space crews (funded by NASA, $1.2M; $110K; $1.2M; $100K). The research has multiple studies in progress organized around two primary foci. First, we are conducting several data collections of "analog" teams operating in isolated, confined, and extreme environments (i.e., the Antarctic and Mars mission simulations). These studies provide benchmark data on the dynamics of team functioning. Second, we are developing social interaction "badges" to capture team interaction dynamics in real time. Long term, the goal is to provide real time assessments of team functioning and to aid the team as needed to maintain effectiveness
The Transfer of Training to the Job: The Concept and Measurement of Use Dr. J. Kevin Ford, Dr. Steve Yelon, and Sarena Bhatia
Ford, Baldwin and Huang (2010) conducted a meta-analysis of training transfer research. They noted that transfer has been measured as both the use of a trained knowledge or skill on the job (behaviors) and the effectiveness of the trainee in applying the knowledge and skill. However, they noted a lack of development of a systematic taxonomy of “use” or actions taken by trainees once back on the job. While almost all of the studies attempted to answer questions about generalization from training to the job, the questions have been confined to the participants’’ direct application to a job task. There is a need for an expanded definition of use in order to enhance understanding of possible uses on the job outside of direct application. This project aims to develop a taxonomy of use on the job and develop measures of use to more comprehensively evaluate training transfer and to understand the behavioral effects of training.
Time to Expertise Dr. J. Kevin Ford, Jessica Santoro, and Morgan Showler
This project is looking into how long it takes individuals at work to develop deep specialization in core jobs such as IT, electrical engineering, and maintenance. While many popular press publications have stated that it takes 10,000 hours of experience to become an expert, we are looking at ways to measure or quantify time to proficiency and time to expertise. We are also focused on factors that can accelerate development towards expertise. We are focused on developing a frameworks for understanding the road to expertise and creating metrics to operationalize expertise atvarious career stages